Have you noticed little square black and white boxes showing up in ads and other places? They are called QR Codes and require decoding software, commonly via an app on a smart phone. The QR code can contain more information than a the usual bar code. They are useful for tracking and for providing supplementary information, such as alternate languages or details on plants in a public garden. Educause has an excellent flyer describing the technology.
Websites referenced: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7046.pdf